Decoding Religious Contents: A CDA of PTB and OUP at Primary Level in Punjab, Pakistan
Ideologies are constructed and propagated through the subtle use of language. Textbooks are designed deftly to propagate a desired version of social realities to the target reader ship. The present research decodes critically the religious contents present in PTB and OUP primary Urdu textbooks taught at Punjab Pakistan during 2021-2022. The data for the present research has been collected purposively from the chapters containing religious contents in different shad from the selected primary Urdu textbooks. The present research employs an integrated research approach by drawing upon Fairclough (2003, 2012) research models. The levels of analysis include representation, lexicalization, metaphor, rhyme scheme, in/ exclusion and normative critique of language. The findings of the research reveal that representation of religion in the selected data is polarized. The role of economy and class difference contribute a lot in the propagation of religious ideology to middle and elite classes. Besides, it contents that the frequency of occurrence of religious contents is higher in PTB, (book which is 26%) as compared to OUP book where this frequency is 12%. This is how the present study confirms that inclination of middle class towards religion is higher as compared to its counterpart.