Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences</strong> (abbreviated as Pak. J. Humanit. Soc. Sci.) is an open-access international journal that is published bi-annually by International Research Association for Sustainable Development (iRASD).&nbsp;PJHSS is publishing double-blind and peer-reviewed research in specific fields of humanities and social sciences.</p> en-US (Dr. Umair Ahmed) (Mr. Shahzad Ahmad) Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 60 An Evaluation of Communicative Language Teaching in Pakistan: A Study of Undergraduate English Learners of Pakistan <p>The research was focused on the use of a communicative method of teaching. Through the use of such an advanced approach, students are unable to be considered proficient speakers of the English language. Various factors were highlighted in this research that causes a hindrance in the success of communicative method teaching. It was also identified how this approach can have positive effects on the students that would help them become proficient speakers of the English language (Nazir, Abbas, &amp; Naz, 2020). A 5-point Likert scale was used in the questionnaires that were filled by 100 students of only one private sector in Lahore. The results deducted the positive effects of this approach along with the reasons for its inability to produce proficient speakers and how it can be sorted out.</p> Aila Noor, Amna Shahid, Shehzad Ahmed, Minaa Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Aila Noor, Amna Shahid, Shehzad Ahmed, Minaa Ahmad Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 -0500 An Analysis of the Circumstances of Tolerance Status Among University Students <p>The study was conducted to analyse the need for a training manual for undergraduate students to promote tolerance through heritage education. The objective of the study was to probe the observations of faculty members regarding the status of tolerance among university undergraduate students. This study was qualitative. The population of the study consisted of public sector universities of province Punjab. A total of 20 faculty members were selected through a simple random sampling technique. The researcher used the semi-structured interview schedule to investigate the perception of faculty members. Nvivo software was used for qualitative data analysis. The qualitative investigation indicated that the students' behavior is often intolerant. Results showed that two significant factors that contribute to intolerance among students were caste and gender differences respectively. Religion also plays an essential role in the occurrence of such incidents, which develop a situation of doing or dying. The intolerance towards different faiths and sects was observed. Students often did not show harmony and respect for others. Lack of balance and non-acceptability of others’ opinions creates conflict.</p> Fahad Maqbool, Shehzad Ahmed, Khadija Akram Copyright (c) 2021 Fahad Maqbool, Shehzad Ahmed, Khadija Akram Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Practices of Examiners in Marking English Essay at HSSC Level <p style="text-align: justify;">The present study was carried out to spot the raters’ practices in marking English essays at the intermediate level in contrast to the marking system of O-level English language assessment in Punjab, Pakistan. The preceding researchers opined that a significant number of students fail in English as a subject. To unravel, the facts a sample of 350 HSSC (Higher Secondary School Certificate) paper raters with mixed experience, academic and professional qualifications have been taken randomly from the different districts of Punjab. Many of them had worked as examiners or sub-examiner for more than 10 years. The researchers formulated, piloted, and self-administered a questionnaire by visiting their workplaces. SPSS has been used to assay the data, and results have been generated. The results deduced that HSSC paper raters never exercised any rubric. They deduct and award scores on their individual judgments about the kind/number of mistakes, length of an essay, and handwriting. There has been found a scarcity of inter-rater reliability. Further, they are self-trained and are ignorant of the objectives; set in the national curriculum for HSSC. The current study is significant as it has implications onboard officials, policymakers, and examiners, which will finally promote skill-based learning.</p> Muhammad Ahmad Hashmi, Muhammad Asim Mahmood, Aamir Shehzad Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Ahmad Hashmi, Muhammad Asim Mahmood, Aamir Shehzad Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Second language acquisition research and materials development: Need to bridge the gap between theory and practice <p>This research paper highlights the issue of the lack of connection between second language acquisition (SLA) theory and research, particularly with regard to language pedagogy and its practical implementation in language teaching materials/textbooks. Based on a theoretical review of the major theoretical perspectives in SLA, the paper underscores that a gap exists between the theory developers (who develop theories through research) and the practitioners (who bear the responsibility for the implementation of theoretical knowledge) in the fields of SLA and materials development. This lack of cohesion between the theory developers and the practitioners causes the development of ineffective English language teaching (ELT) materials which, consequently, fail to make a substantial contribution to effective English language teaching and learning. The paper highlights that it is important to explore SLA theory and research and ensure its implementation in ELT materials. Similarly, there is a need to carry out research about the implementation of SLA theory in materials development and instructed language learning. Such research will be a significant contribution to the field of materials development and will open new horizons in language pedagogy from both theoretical and practical perspectives<em>.</em></p> Shahzad Karim, Abdul Saeed, Naushaba Haq Copyright (c) 2021 Shahzad Karim, Abdul Saeed, Naushaba Haq Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Impact of Social Anxiety and Humor Styles on Mental Health <p>The present study is a “cross-sectional survey research”; aimed toward monitoring the impact of Social Anxiety and Humor Styles on Mental Health. For the study, 500 subjects (205 males, 295 females) were approached. The sample was obtained through the use of random sampling. “The age range” of the applicants was as of 18 to 31 years. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale by Michael Liebowitz was used to measure the Social Anxiety among the participants, the “four Humor Styles (Affiliative, Self-enhancing, Aggressive and Self-defeating)” be measured by means of Humor Style Questionnaire by Dr. Rod A. Martin, and the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) by Veit and Ware was used to measure the Mental Health of the research participants. Results of the study revealed that Social Anxiety and Humor Styles have a significant impact on Mental Health. The study further monitored how men and women differ in terms of Social Anxiety, Humor Styles and Mental Health. The findings suggested that no gender differences exist in Social Anxiety and Mental Health. As far as the four Humor Styles are concerned, no gender difference was found in “Aggressive and Self-enhancing Humor Styles”; while Affiliative and “Self-defeating Humor Styles” varied in terms of gender. The findings of the study suggested that make use of the “Adaptive Humor Styles Affiliative and Self-enhancing” lessens the Social Anxiety and causes amelioration in the Mental Health; while the use of “Mal-adaptive Humor Styles (Aggressive and Self-defeating)” exacerbates the Social Anxiety and causes deterioration in the Mental Health.</p> Novera Obaid Qazi, Umbreen Khizar, Umber Baloch Copyright (c) 2021 Novera Obaid Qazi, Umbreen Khizar, Umber Baloch Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Mental Health of Adults with Covid-19 and without Covid-19 <p>This systematic comparative study aimed to examine measuring the mental health of adults with and without covid-19 in Pakistan. A purposive sampling technique was utilized in this study. The sample consisted of 72 participants. Mental Health Inventory (MHI) by (Veit &amp; Ware, 1983) was utilized for measuring the mental health of confirmed positive COVID-19 cases and the general population. Findings indicated that the COVID-19 pandemic was significantly associated with mental health and confirmed positive Covid-19 participants have less mental health than the general population. Anxiety was found higher in COVID-19 patients as compared to depression whereas in the general population depression was found higher than anxiety. Behavioral control was non-significant in both covid-19 patients and the general population. The positive effect was less in the general population than confirmed positive covid-19 patients. These findings are very important for future planning. But some limitations were that this research was conducted only in one district in Bhakkar and this sample was too short. In the future, this research should be on a large scale in which the maximum era of the country should be selected.</p> Hira Khan, Bilal Ahmad, Umbreen Khizar Copyright (c) 2021 Hira Khan, Bilal Ahmad, Umbreen Khizar Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Psychological Ethical Climate in Schools and Teachers’ Performance: Analyzing the Effect on Government and Private Teachers <p>The present research examined the impact of psychological ethical climate on teachers’ performance in government and private schools of Bahawalpur. In this study, the descriptive research design was used, and data were collected through two scales, such as the psychological ethical climate scale developed by Schwepker, Ferrell, and Ingram (1997) and the teachers’ job performance scale developed by Akhtar and Haider (2017). The simple random and convenient sampling techniques were used to select government ESEs and private school teachers and their principals to rate their performance. Total 280 questionnaires were distributed among teachers, and 60 questionnaires were provided to principals, and the response rate was 100% due to vigorous follow-up by the researchers. Researchers applied different statistical techniques to the collected data to get accurate results. This study revealed that both government and private teachers highly displayed a psychological ethical climate in their schools. The study results showed that psychological ethical climate has a statistically significant effect on teachers’ performance in private schools. At the same time, the effect was insignificant in government schools.</p> Syed Zubair Haider, Rafaquat Ali, Syeda Sidra Nosheen Copyright (c) 2021 Syed Zubair Haider, Rafaquat Ali, Syeda Sidra Nosheen Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500