Socio-Economic Development Analysis: A Comparative Study of Democratic versus Autocratic Governance in Pakistan




Autocracy, Democracy, Economic Indicators, Social Indicators


Since the inception of Pakistan, there remained two forms of government namely autocratic and democratic. Both types of government keep on taking their turns in an almost consistent manner in terms of time duration. This study endeavors to comprehensively compare and contrast the performance of autocracy with democracy in Pakistan. Considering the significant duration of autocratic rule, spanning 32 out of 75 years, Pakistan's geostrategic position has subjected it to various internal and externally-driven crises. By analyzing 15 carefully selected socio-economic indicators over a span of 54 years (1960-2018), this research aims to elucidate the disparities between autocracy and democracy. Employing rigorous statistical methods such as independent t-tests and logistic regression, this study seeks to discern the distinct effects and efficacy of both forms of government on Pakistan's socio-economic landscape. The outcomes of this research endeavor to shed light on the implications and performance of differing governance systems in Pakistan.  Results have indicated that out of these 15 indicators, eight have shown significant differences in the performance of both forms of government while the other seven showed no significant differences (could not reject the null hypothesis). Overall, the performance of autocratic governments has remained better with respect to economic indicators. While the political governments have an edge over social indicators although majority of the results are insignificant. The study will promote the understanding of authorities and concerned individuals to accelerate the process of better economic and social reforms. The successful models of past irrespective of the type of government be followed to bring sustainability in the policies. Furthermore, this study will pave the way for further research to deeply analyze the causes of better economic performance under autocratic regimes and establishment of credible policies to attain the better results under democratic regimes as well.


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Author Biographies

Muhammad Saffi ur Rehman, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Management Sciences

Khawaja Zeeshan Waheed, Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Management Sciences

Saqib Munir, NUST Institute of Peace and Conflict studies (NIPCONS), Islamabad, Pakistan.

Ph.D., Department of Economics

Faid Gul, National University of Modern languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Ph.D. Professor, Department of Management Sciences




How to Cite

Rehman, M. S. ur, Waheed, K. Z., Munir, S., & Gul, F. (2024). Socio-Economic Development Analysis: A Comparative Study of Democratic versus Autocratic Governance in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 12(1), 859–870.