Study of Linguistic Components of Pakistani English: An Indigenized English Variety




Pakistani English (PakE), British English (BrE), Syntax, Socio-cultural


This study explores the linguistic components of Pakistani English (PakE) and how this English variety has been indigenized in linguistically diverse Pakistan. English is recognized as an official language in Pakistan, but it is often taught without appropriate socio-cultural context. The research aims to highlight the development of PakE through examining factors that influence its evolution, and analyze main linguistic features that draw its distinction from British English. The study uses a qualitative methodology, particularly thematic analysis of audio recorded interviews with two university students. Findings of the study reveal clausal, syntactic and lexical features of PakE that deviate from standard British English variety. The findings also demonstrate how PakE speakers code-mix Urdu and English, use unique sentence formations, and transform declarative sentences into interrogatives in casual talk. Moreover, the results imply the need for greater focus on linguistic diversity and importance of inclusion of native socio-cultural contexts in English language education across Pakistan. Additionally, understanding of common features of PakE can help informing language planning and policies focused on endorsing regional linguistic identity. Further research examining additional social, cultural and linguistic variables influencing ongoing development of Pakistani English as an indigenized variety is needed.


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Author Biographies

Lutif Ali Halo, Islamabad Model College for Boys (IMCB) F-7/3, Islamabad (FDE) , Pakistan.


Sanaullah Rustamani, University of Sindh, Pakistan.

Ph.D. Scholar, IELL

Noor Muhammad, Islamabad Model Postgraduate College (IMPC) H-8, Islamabad (FDE), Pakistan.





How to Cite

Halo, L. A., Rustamani, S., & Muhammad, N. (2024). Study of Linguistic Components of Pakistani English: An Indigenized English Variety. Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 12(1), 287–293.