iRASD Journal of Educational Research https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer <p><em><span data-contrast="auto">i</span></em><span data-contrast="auto">RASD</span><span data-contrast="auto"> Journal of </span><span data-contrast="auto">Educational Research (JER</span><span data-contrast="auto">) is a</span><span data-contrast="auto">n international</span><span data-contrast="auto"> bi-annual double-blind peer</span><span data-contrast="auto">-</span><span data-contrast="auto">reviewed </span><span data-contrast="auto">open access </span><span data-contrast="auto">journal</span><span data-contrast="auto"> addressing the issues of </span><span data-contrast="auto">Education published by the International Research Alliance for Sustainable Development (</span><span data-contrast="auto">iRASD</span><span data-contrast="auto">).<br /><strong>Online ISSN:</strong> 2791-0644<br /><strong>Print ISSN:</strong> 2791-0636<br /></span></p> en-US editor.jer@internationalrasd.org (Dr. Muhammad Latif Javed) support@internationalrasd.org (Mr. Hassan Ali) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 3.3.0.8 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 A Study to Investigate the Impact of COVID-19 on Virtual Learning the Mediation Sources of E-Learning in Developing Countries https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/567 <p>The paper considers about the constraints of the country and its populace to continue with the guidance method in the institutes in the on the web kind of partition learning, study studies the differing accessible stages and demonstrates the ones that stood utilized through assistance of the administration, for example, online passageway, Television School and Microsoft bundles for schools and the options like Zoom, Slack and Google Meet that can be utilized for online instruction and live correspondence what's more, gives examples of their utilization. The activity picked up from the panic condition of COVID 19 will compel a time of newfangled regulations, rules, stages in addition answers for imminent circumstances, as soon as the states and the administration willpower be supplementary composed than nowadays.</p> Rao Akmal Ali, Saqib Ishaq, Danish Munir Copyright (c) 2021 Rao Akmal Ali, Saqib Ishaq, Danish Munir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/567 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Quality of Education and University Image on Word of Mouth: Empirical Study from Pakistani Universities https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/542 <p>This research paper aims to find the influence of service quality and university image on word of mouth in public and private sector universities. In this study the survey instruments are used from preceding researchers. Such as Service quality is adapted from previous researcher comprised of 12 items. The construct of university image has 5 items which are adapted from the earlier researcher. For the construct of word of mouth there are 6 indicators revised from the researcher. All those variables are measured on 7-point Likert scale ranging within strongly disagree=1 to strongly agree=7. The result for this study are: the findings are confirmed from the analysis of data such as service quality(SQ)show strong positive impact on university image (UI)), there is strong positive impact of service quality (SQ) on word of mouth and strong positive impact of university image on word of mouth. This study’s significance and originality is affirmed by considering that just limited examinations have been done to check the impact of service quality (SQ) and university image (UI). There is no study conducted in which the influence of both service quality and university image on word of mouth is checked. The model is not applied in any research. There are five dimensions of service quality used in this research, but some researchers showed divergent behavior on using just these five dimensions in service sector and recommended to add more suitable dimensions in this construct.</p> Muhammad Hasnain Ali, Muhammad Arslan Siddique, Muhammad Abubakar Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Hasnain Ali, Muhammad Arslan Siddique, Muhammad Abubakar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/542 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Corollary of Various Leadership Styles on the Quality of Education and Faculty Performance with the Moderation of Organizational Politics: A Study from Pakistani Public Universities https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/541 <p>Financial knowledge is necessary for money management. The objective of this research is to determine the level of financial knowledge and its effect on financial literacy among university students in Punjab, Pakistan. The data was collected through a questionnaire among the different management, economic, and business students in the different universities of Punjab, Pakistan. Data were analyzed through Smart-PLS. Results showed a significant effect of financial attitude and financial Behavior on financial literacy. It also indicates that financial Behavior and financial attitude have a direct positive effect on financial literacy. While the financial influence has a non-significant and negative impact on financial literacy. This research helps to contribute to the review of literature on determinants of financial literacy among university students in the future. This study is causal to investigate the effect of leadership styles on university performance. In leadership, two dimensions are analyzed first is autocratic leadership style and second is democratic leadership style. While in University performance, two dimensions are taken, the first one is the employee's performance and the second one is quality of education. Primary data were collected through the questionnaire from the university professors from 30 public sector universities in Punjab. This study proved a negative relationship between autocratic leadership style on employees’ performance and quality of education. Moreover, there has been a positive relationship between democratic leadership style on the employee's performance as well as on the quality of education. Organizational politics enhances the negative relationship between autocratic leadership style and employees’ performance and quality of education. In addition to that, its effect is weak in the positive relationship between democratic leadership style on employees’ performance and quality of education. This study is helpful for the ministry of education to improve university performance by incorporating the findings in the policy formulation.</p> Muhammad Hasnain Ali, Muhammad Akash Shafique, Ali Aamir Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Hasnain Ali, Muhammad Akash Shafique, Ali Aamir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/541 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Educational Performance and its determinants: a case study of Quaid-i-Azam University https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/501 <p>In this study, we examine the socio-economic factors affecting educational performance of university students. This study is based on data mainly taken from school of economics, and 17 other departments of Quaid-i-Azam University. In perception analysis, 51.97% of 177 participants favored government’s educational policies and 87.42 % of 159 participants concur that preservation of self-respect boosts educational performance. Descriptive analysis embodies that Grades of students decreases 5 % on average in Quaid-i-Azam University (male faces a deterioration of 7.3% and female faces a decline of 2.67% on average). Moreover, study time of students/day (250 sample size) increase 1.21 hours on average in University. Additionally, we find that there is a decline of 9.6 % in grades of Punjabi student while a deterioration of 4.7 % in grades of Balochistan and Sindh urban/rural. Regression analysis of this study shows that students having good grades in past, not affiliated with council system of university (based on ethnic groups) or student politics, giving proper time to study and sleep and regularly attending classes have good grades in the university than that of others. Bmi has negative relation with grades of students but it’s not much significant.</p> Ayesha Manzoor, Maria Aslam, Muhammad Hasnain Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Ayesha Manzoor, Maria Aslam, Muhammad Hasnain Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/501 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Investigating the Factors Affecting Financial Literacy among University Students: A Case study of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur and Bahauddin Zakariya University of Multan https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/465 <p style="text-align: justify;">Financial knowledge is necessary for money management. The objective of this research is to determine the level of financial knowledge and its effect on financial literacy among university students in Punjab, Pakistan. The data was collected through a questionnaire among the different management, economic, and business students in the different universities of Punjab, Pakistan. Data were analyzed through Smart-PLS. Results showed a significant effect of financial attitude and financial Behavior on financial literacy. It also indicates that financial Behavior and financial attitude have a direct positive effect on financial literacy. While the financial influence has a non-significant and negative impact on financial literacy. This research helps to contribute to the review of literature on determinants of financial literacy among university students in the future.</p> Zulekha Siraj, Muhammad Ali Zafar, Ruqayya Ibraheem Copyright (c) 2021 Zulekha Siraj, Muhammad Ali Zafar, Ruqayya Ibraheem https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/465 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Discipline as a Predicting Factor of Quality Teaching Learning Process at Primary Schools of Southern Punjab https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/415 <p>This study deals with discipline as a predicting factor of quality teaching learning process at primary schools of southern Punjab. There are number of factors that are responsible for quality teaching learning process, discipline is one of them. Objectives were set are to identify the role of discipline in teaching learning process at primary school level; to determine the extent of discipline in teaching learning process in schools of southern Punjab; to highlight the effectiveness of positive discipline in teaching learning process in primary schools of southern Punjab and to identify the factors of quality teaching learning process in primary schools of southern Punjab. Mixed method approach was employed to conduct the study. The study was descriptive in nature. The population of the study was considered the public head teachers and PST teachers at government schools. Researcher randomly selected 15 public primary schools, 75 teachers and 15 head teachers as a sample from three tehsils of Bahawalpur district. In current study questionnaire, semi-structured interview and observation sheet was used as a research tool to collect data. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. To analyze the items, the statistical techniques of mean score and one-independent t-test were used. Major findings of the study reveal that being a teacher I am, causes of students’ indiscipline, quality education means to me, me being a teacher have, me with my students, standards for provision of quality education and role of students in teaching learning process. Conclusion shows that discipline is a main factor that effect on quality teaching learning process.</p> Sidra Arshad Copyright (c) 2021 Sidra Arshad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/415 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Teachers’ Self-Efficacy in the Implementation of BS Education Curriculum in the Universities of Punjab https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/414 <p>The current study was designed to investigate the Teachers’ Self-Efficacy in the implementation of the B.S education curriculum in the universities of Punjab. The objectives of the study were to highlight (Personal and professional) factors of university teachers’ self-efficacy, to explore (Personal and Professional) factors of chairman/chairperson’s self-efficacy and to find out the new pedagogical technique adopted by teachers to implement the B.S education curricula. The study was delimited to four public sector universities of Punjab province namely University of Education Dera Ghazi Khan Campus, Government College University Faisalabad, Zakaria University Multan and The Islamia University of Bahawalpur. The mixed-method approach was used to conduct this study. The research instrument was used according to the requirement of research and the nature of the topic. The population of the study consisted of the head of departments, teachers and students of BS education discipline. The sample size for the study was (4) head of a department, (40) teachers and (200) students for the data collection. Multistage sampling technique was used for the study for the collection of data questionnaire and semi structured interview were prepared. Semi-structured interviews for the head of departments have consisted of (12) questions. Whereas the questionnaire which was prepared for the students consisted of (38) close-ended statements and teachers questionnaire (35) close ended were based on (5) point Likert scale. Data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The research finds out that the study indicates that Participants noted that with enhanced new curricula and teaching practices, they felt that they were better teachers and more effective in enhancing student learning. conclusion of the study that Students believe that those participants who were actively involved in ongoing, embedded professional development felt that they had the necessary skills and confidence to embrace the student-based inquiry method in implementing the new curriculum. Teachers believe that professional development involvement provides clarity and direction in understanding the need for change.</p> Iqra Amin Copyright (c) 2020 Iqra Amin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/414 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Communication barriers in creating an ideal learning environment: A study of Public Sector Schools of Punjab, Pakistan https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/406 <p>Quality education is the new destination of secondary school education in Pakistan and especially in Punjab province. Quality education is impossible without creating an ideal learning environment. Success is always a joint adventure. So, communication barriers or gaps are the major hurdles for creating an ideal learning environment. A major goal of this study is to highlight those communication barriers which are hurdles in creating an ideal learning environment at public secondary schools of Punjab province. Management, teachers, and learners are three major stakeholders who create an ideal learning environment in an institution. Management and teachers are core parts of a learning environment. A descriptive research design was used to complete this study. Management and teachers are the target sample of the study. Two different questionnaires, each for school managers and school teachers were prepared which are based on a five-point Likert Scale. The study was delimited to the Multan District of Punjab province only. Interesting findings and suggestions based on findings are part of the study.</p> Hafiz Kosar, Huma Naz, Abida Khan Copyright (c) 2020 Hafiz Kosar, Huma Naz, Abida Khan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/406 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Self-Actualization among Students of Higher Education Institutions in Pakistan https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/405 <p>Man continually seeks to gratify some needs. As one need is satisfactorily fulfilled, it is replaced by another. Maslow characterized these needs as psychological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. Self-actualization means the realization of one’s own capabilities to fulfill a job or work. This study is intended to know that how self-actualization is the need and desire at the higher education level in Pakistan. Two separate questionnaires each for teachers and students based on a four-point Likert scale. 150 teachers and 600 students of the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahauddin Zakariya University, and the University of Punjab was the sample of the study. Almost 80% of teachers and 87% of students responded to the research tools. Factor analysis yields 7 factors for students such as personal commitment towards self-actualization, ability to work in various social situations, self-regard among university students, social efficacy of the respondents, students’ commitment to social integration, professionalism among students, and self-acceptability among university. Descriptive statistics were calculated for both the data sets. The impact of demographic variables on each factor was calculated by either using t-test or one-way ANOVA. The major findings were more than 75% of respondents showed a personal commitment to their self-actualization, more than 66% of respondents showed self-acceptance. It was concluded in the perception of both respondent teachers and students that Pakistani university students did their best to meet the expectations of life, it was concluded through the analysis of the teachers’ responses that Pakistani university students had self-acceptability. The major recommendation was self-acceptability which is necessary for self-actualization so students should be provided with the opportunities so that students may be able to realize their abilities and skills for their self-acceptability.</p> Muhammad Zeeshan, Akhtar Ali Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Zeeshan, Akhtar Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/405 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Impact of Outdoor Learning on Student Achievement At Secondary School Level https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/404 <p>A descriptive research study explores the effect of outdoor learning on students of secondary school. Outdoor learning improves student academic outcomes to assess their success in school and student attitudes toward learning science. This study examined the learning experiences of 180 students of the secondary school of Bahawalpur by random sampling each student was observed by outdoor lessons. Each lesson lasted an hour. Students filled the questionnaire and give an opinion before and after class. Finding reported that outdoor educations are more effective at developing positive attitudes towards learning science than a typical classroom experience. The outdoor environment acts as a stimulus for creative thinking. The majority of the students showed a positive response that they would like to have more lessons outdoor as compared to indoor. The research study suggested that there is a need for outdoor learning in school to improve science scores.</p> Asghar Ali Copyright (c) 2020 Asghar Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/404 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 An Analysis of Teaching Learning Process in Higher Education Institutions of Bahawalpur https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/402 <p>This research work addresses the important issue of teaching learning and assessment practices in higher education institutions in the city of Bahawalpur. This study specifically focuses on the Bachelor of Science (B.S hereafter) level of study in selected institutions. Teaching learning in higher education is currently undergoing an important phase. They are facing challenges that are never faced before. This study is important to provide useful information for teaching learning and assessment, help the student to solve the problems faced by the student during learning and the purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of teaching learning. The report was on an analysis of teaching learning and assessment practices among BS students in Bahawalpur. However, due to limited time and resources, it was difficult to access all the population of different regions of Bahawalpur city for a student at a masters level of 3 Government institutes: The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Govt. Sadiq College Women University, Bahawalpur (GCWU) and SadiqEgerton (S. E) College, Bahawalpur. The majority of the respondent agreed with the statement that they are satisfied with the existing teaching practices.</p> Najam Ul Kashif, Kiran Shehzadi, Zunaira Arshad Copyright (c) 2020 Najam Ul Kashif, Kiran Shehzadi, Zunaira Arshad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/402 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Lack of Facilities in Primary Schools of Rural Areas at Government Sector of District Bahawalpur, and Its impacts on Students https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/401 <p>This research examines the cultural identity crisis of Igbo people, caused by the policies of European colonizers. The research discusses the superiority complex of white British people, which lead Igbo people to cultural identity crisis. The researcher highlights the disastrous phase of the African society under the influence of European culture. Igbo people lost their cultural identity by the invasion of white colonizers. The white men force the natives to change their tribal traditions during their colonial rule. Igbo people suffer from mental trauma and identity crisis. The white people impose their law on Igbo natives and exercise their authority. The democratic and altruistic characteristics of Igbo natives lead them to follow new culture and religion. The drastic changes come in Igbo traditional culture and tribal lifestyle that makes the society restless.</p> Najam Ul Kashif, Zunaira Arshad, Kiran Shehzadi Copyright (c) 2021 Najam Ul Kashif, Zunaira Arshad, Kiran Shehzadi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.internationalrasd.org/index.php/jer/article/view/401 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500